Alappuzha is a district of the state of Kerala in India. It was formed as the district of Alleppey on August 17, 1957. The name of the district was officially changed to Alappuzha in 1990.
It has the highest population density among all districts of the state.
Alleppey, a town with picturesque canals, backwaters and lagoons, was described as the “Venice of the East” by Marco Polo.
Snake boat races are the most significant traditional event in Alleppey. These spectacular water regattas are usually held between August and October, and involve long thin boats powered by up to 120 oarsmen.
The most famous snake boat race is the Nehru Trophy Boat Race.
The church located at Kokkamangalam or Kokkothamangalam was one of the seven churches founded by St.Thomas, one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ.
Area 1414 km? – 3.64% of area of the state
Population 2.105 million – 6.61% of the population of the state (2001)
Population density 1492/km2 (2001)
Literacy 83%-94% (2001)
Sex ratio 1050 females/1000 males
The history of the district in the Paleolithic age is obscure. It is presumed that the coastal taluks of Cherthala, Ambalapuzha and Karthikapally might have been under water and these areas were formed by the accumulation of silt and sand later than the other parts of the district. Kuttanadu, one of the taluks of the present Alappuzha district was well known even from the early periods of the Sangam age. The early Cheras had their home in Kuttanadu and they were called ‘ Kuttuvans ‘, named after this place. Christianity had a strong foothold in the area even from the Ist century A.D. The church located at Kokkomangalam or Kokkothamangalam in Cherthala is one of the seven churches founded by St. Thomas, one of the twelve disciples of Jesus at Maliankara in Muziris port, presently known as Cranganore of Kodungallur in 52 A.D. and preached Christianity in South India. During 9th to 12th century A.D, the district flourished in the field of religion and culture under the second Chera empire.
During the 16th century small principalities like Kayamkulam (presently Karthikappally and Mavelikkara taluks), Purakkad which was often called Ambalappuzha or Chempakasseri (present Ambalappuzha and part of Kuttanadu taluk) Karappuram comprising two principalities called Moothedath and Iledath (present Cherthala taluk) emerged into power.
In the same period, the Portuguese came into prominence in the political scene of this district and they built several churches of which churches located at Purakkad and Arthungal are wellknown.
In the 17th century the Portuguese power declined and the Dutch had a predominant position in the principalities of this district. As a result of several treaties signed between the Dutch and the kings of Purakkad, Kayamkulam and Karappuram, the Dutch built factories and warehouses in various places of the district for storing pepper, ginger,etc.
In course of time they interfered in the political and cultural affairs of the district. It was at that time Maharaja Mathandavarma, the ‘Master of Modern Travencore’ interfered on the political affairs of those principalities.
The annexation of the kingdoms of Kayamkulam, Ambalappuzha, Thekkumkur, Vadakkumkur and Karappuram to Travancore gave the Dutch a set back from the political scene of the district. Marthandavarma Maharaja had a remarkable role in the internal progress of the district. He gave special attention to the development of Mavelikkara as an administrative as well as a commercial centre.The Krishnapuram palace, which is now a protected monument of the State Archaeology Department was constructed during that period.
When the town was founded by Raja Kesavadasan, the Diwan of Travancore in 1762, there was just one canal through the strip of sand between the backwaters and the sea. This soon grew into a bustling waterway, with shops, factories and commercial establishments springing up on either banks of the canal. This attracted merchants from other parts of the country.
By the mid 19th century the sea receded a mile offering more land along the sandstrip. Trading vessels soon began to call on Alappuzha. In 1859 the first organised coir factory was started here and began producing matting from coir yarn on a loom developed by an English Sea Captain. Soon other British owned weaving establishments followed .Meanwhile in 1816 the Church Missionary Society set up its local Headquarters in Alappuzha and three years later the first Anglican church was built. In 1851 Jalap had the honour of housing the first post office in the erstwhile Travancore State.